perseus_android_bluetooth_atmega_robot In a previous article, I've shown that it is possible to connect a bluetooth module to an ATMega micro controller via the UART serial interface and even further, discover it using a bluetooth enabled computer or smartphone.
The 9600bps serial link established, can than be used to exchange data.

Using an Android phone for this purpose is no exception. I will use it to control the Perseus 3 robot platform. What I'm doing is directly interfacing the Android with the ATMega microcontroller via the serial bluetooth link. So you can use this technology for other purposes than robots, since the ATMega has a large range of possible uses: control the light in your home using the Android phone, read various sensors and gather the data on the Android, and more.

Keep in mind that the technology presented here can easily be extended: instead of an Android phone you can use any bluetooth enabled programmable device (a Windows Mobile Smartphone, an iPhone, etc) and instead of this robot you can use any other hardware system. The idea is to show how far automation can go.

Note: Part 2 is available here: Android controlled robot – Part 2

Android Software

Using Bluetooth on Android is still problematic, meaning that you have access only to very basic functionality.
The PROs are that they are evolving, and improving, while keeping their platform simple and accessible. So I am confident Android will be in a short time a complete alternative for advanced applications.

To control Bluetooth on Android, there are two possibilities:
1) Rely on BlueZ and Native C code. You can do this either with the Android Tool-chain, or more comfortable, using JNI. Take a moment to read both my articles for a better understanding.
This approach works on all Android platforms.
2) Use the Bluetooth SDK that Google introduced in Android 2.0. It is incomplete, but will probably get better (soon?) and for Serial connections is enough. I will use this approach, but will also provide an example for BlueZ and JNI.

Bluetooth on Android using BlueZ and JNI
First you need to setup your software tools like presented here.
For this example, I will only show how to write C code for the BlueZ stack, and the JNI interface, so that you would be able to do a Bluetooth device discovery. This technique works on all older Android devices.
The interface is using TABs, one for Bluetooth Discovery and another one for controlling the ROBOT. The tabs are created dynamically, as presented in this article.
The discovery results are displayed in a listview. The listview is also created dynamically (no XML), using a simple technique presented here.
From the multitude of Bluetooth devices detected, the Robot is identified based on its Bluetooth Address, in my case 00:1D:43:00:E4:78 .
Here are some pictures with the result:

1 android JNI bluetooth discovery 2 android discover bluetooth atmega uart module 3 android bluetooth discovery

The code, both Java and C JNI is available here:
android bluetooth discovery sample (604KB)
If you want to recompile the Java part, please see this tutorial.
If you want to recompile the JNI C code, you will find this article useful.
The code defines an array of devices (BTDev BTDevs[];), then when the button is pressed, it calls the native (intDiscover) function to populate the array BTDevs, and using it , adds content to the Listview.

Bluetooth on Android using the Bluetooth SDK
To move forward with this project, we will skip the native BlueZ approach and use the Bluetooth SDK introduced with Android 2.0. So the code above is to be modified to do the discovery using the Android Bluetooth SDK. It will only work on Android 2.0 or newer.
So we delete the BTNative class, and of m_BT we will use m_BluetoothAdapter defined as BluetoothAdapter m_BluetoothAdapter;. However we're still keeping the BTDevs structure, to handle the discovered bluetooth devices.
To do the bluetooth discovery, we define two events:

  2. // Register for broadcasts when a device is discovered
  3. IntentFilter filter = new IntentFilter(BluetoothDevice.ACTION_FOUND);
  4. this.registerReceiver(mReceiver, filter);
  6. // Register for broadcasts when discovery has finished
  7. filter = new IntentFilter(BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_DISCOVERY_FINISHED);
  8. this.registerReceiver(mReceiver, filter);

ACTION_FOUND is sent when a new device is discovered, and ACTION_DISCOVERY_FINISHED when the discovery process is complete.
Pressing the ROBOT entry in the list of the discovered devices, opens a socket for data exchange. The ROBOT sends sensor data and the Android sends commands for moving the ROBOT around, for turning on the lights, the laser pointer, etc.
Please note that before attempting to connect a serial bluetooth socket from code to the ROBOT, you will need to manually go to Android's Bluetooth Settings Panel, and pair the ROBOT Bluetooth device. For my BTModule, the pin code is 1234:

device07 device08 device11 device12

Again, this is an unforgivable limitation of the current Android Bluetooth SDK, and prohibits current applications from having full control over the device's functionality.
Being connected we are taken automatically to the "Control" TAB. In code we will need to obtain two handlers, one to incoming data, and one for outgoing data to manage the connection.
The "Control" TAB offers an interface that can be used to move the robot. Since Perseus 3 is a differential robot platform, we will need to control each side Forward and Backwards. So to move forward, we will have each side set to FORWARD. To move backwards, both must be set to BACKWARD, and finally to turn around, one side must be set FORWARD and the other BACKWARD. Exactly like in the case of a military tank.
For easier use the interface provides 4 buttons that support all movement.
Download the Android Source code here:
android robot control (736KB)

The code currently only controls the robot. No sensor reading yet. I need to leave something for the next part of this article as well 🙂

The ROBOT Microcontroller software

It's not enough to write code for the Android. I also had to write code for the ATMega8 controlling the ROBOT. This microcontroller has several functions:
- commanding the HBridges that control the powerful geared motors
- reading data from the sensors (PING Ultrasonic sensors, PIR sensors)
- commanding the robot LIGHTs
- commanding the laser pointer and other instruments
- interfacing the BLuetooth Radio Module via UART (TX/RX/TTL)

So I will try to keep things simple. I need to setup the 9600 baud rate with the Bluetooth Module then listen from commands comming via the Bluetooth serial socket. In this first version the commands are very simple:
character 'w' - moves forward, 'd'- moves right, 'a'-moves left, and 's' move backward.

  2. int g_nMove = 0, g_nTurn = 0;
  4. void uartRxHandler(unsigned char c)
  5. {
  6. char xs[255] = {0};
  7. sprintf(xs, "[%c]\n\r",c);
  8. uartSendBuffer(xs, strlen(xs));
  10. if (c == 'w') g_nMove = 1;
  11. if (c == 's') g_nMove = -1;
  12. if (c == 'd') g_nTurn = -1;
  13. if (c == 'a') g_nTurn = 1;
  14. }
  16. int main(void)
  17. {
  18. //general index
  19. int i=0;
  20. DDRB |= 0x1E;
  21. LEDInit();
  22. LEDSet(1);
  24. timerInit(); // initialize the timer system
  26. a2dInit(); // initialize analog to digital converter (ADC)
  27. a2dSetPrescaler(ADC_PRESCALE_DIV32); // configure ADC scaling
  28. a2dSetReference(ADC_REFERENCE_AVCC); // configure ADC reference voltage
  30. //uart
  31. uartInit(); // initialize the UART (serial port)
  32. uartSetBaudRate(9600);// set the baud rate of the UART for our debug/reporting output
  33. uartSetRxHandler(uartRxHandler);
  34. uartSendBuffer("Serial on.\n\r",12);
  35. //main loop
  36. while(1)
  37. {
  38. delay_us(1000000);
  39. i++;
  40. if (i>255) i = 0;
  41. LEDSet(i%2); // flash the board led
  43. int nPINGL = a2dConvert8bit(5); // info sensor PING front-left >0 means obstacle detected
  44. int nPINGR = a2dConvert8bit(4); // info sensor PING front-right >0 means obstacle detected
  46. //PORT_ON(PORTB, 1);
  47. //PORT_ON(PORTB, 3);
  49. if (g_nMove == 1)
  50. {
  51. PORT_ON(PORTB, 1);
  52. PORT_ON(PORTB, 3);
  53. delay_us(2600000);
  54. PORT_OFF(PORTB, 1);
  55. PORT_OFF(PORTB, 3);
  56. g_nMove = 0;
  57. }
  58. if (g_nMove == -1)
  59. {
  60. PORT_ON(PORTB, 2);
  61. PORT_ON(PORTB, 4);
  62. delay_us(2600000);
  63. PORT_OFF(PORTB, 2);
  64. PORT_OFF(PORTB, 4);
  65. g_nMove = 0;
  66. }
  67. if (g_nTurn == 1)
  68. {
  69. PORT_ON(PORTB, 1);
  70. PORT_ON(PORTB, 4);
  71. delay_us(1500000);
  72. PORT_OFF(PORTB, 1);
  73. PORT_OFF(PORTB, 4);
  74. g_nTurn = 0;
  75. }
  76. if (g_nTurn == -1)
  77. {
  78. PORT_ON(PORTB, 2);
  79. PORT_ON(PORTB, 3);
  80. delay_us(2000000);
  81. PORT_OFF(PORTB, 2);
  82. PORT_OFF(PORTB, 3);
  83. g_nTurn = 0;
  84. }
  85. }
  86. return 0;
  87. }

Download the complete source code here:
ATMega8 Android ROBOBrain-1

To learn how to compile this code and to program the microcontroller, see this tutorial. As you can see, I've explained everything you need to know to achieve this project in a few easy steps.
Here's the Perseus-3 platform during code upload process (connected to my PC):

P1110200 atmega8 upload code robot

About part 2

This article needs to be continued. A better robot platform, better Android software, reading data from sensors (it's actually easy, but I already wasted one full day for this part only), better ROBOT ATmega software, etc, and not to forget, more pictures and videos.

EDIT: Here are some variants created by my readers

Bryan, from Singapore:, created a very nice Meccano robot that can be controlled with an Android phone:

Note: Part 2 is available here: Android controlled robot – Part 2

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179 thoughts on “Android Bluetooth controlled robot – Part 1

  • Pingback: Android controlled robot – Part 2 « PocketMagic

  • February 11, 2013 at 1:56 am

    I’ve been trying to install your program on an Samsung Galaxy S3, HTC Evo, and a Nexus 7 tablet but every time I install I get a “Unfortunately, PerseusAndroid has stopped.” message. The link I’m using is , I’ve tried taking the apk file out of bin, and running the code through AIDE with the same result. Fiddling around with the code, the error seems to happen on this line : tabHost.addTab(ts); in the createMainTABHost() method in I’m not sure if maybe I have an older version of code?

  • February 11, 2013 at 1:59 am

    @luca: android has changed since I wrote that code. You need to make this change: TabHost tabHost = new TabHost(this, null);

    instead of TabHost tabHost = new TabHost(this);

  • February 11, 2013 at 2:15 am

    That did the trick! Thank you for the quick reply.

  • February 11, 2013 at 2:17 am

    Glad to hear it works. what are you building?

  • February 11, 2013 at 2:30 am

    This is part of an old robot similar to yours that already used to work. My professor wants me to get it working again so that I can learn a bit more about communicating between Android and Arduino.

  • February 11, 2013 at 2:31 am

    Sounds good. Would love to see yours. Drop me a few pics if you have the time.

  • February 11, 2013 at 2:44 am

    Thanks for all the help!

  • March 25, 2013 at 7:40 pm

    sir, please help me I also want to make a blutooth controlled car, to control it from my Samsung galaxy y android phone having android 2.3 version.
    what are the kits or instruments required please help me step by step.

  • March 27, 2013 at 6:00 pm

    i need ur help i alimented a Hc05 bluetooth when i searched for his adress mac i can t find it !! i shoud activate/make it descovrble or what !!i don t understand my problem

  • March 27, 2013 at 6:20 pm

    @dhia: When you power on your HC05 it should be discoverable by default. Make sure you’ve connected it correctly, including the 10K resistor.

  • April 9, 2013 at 11:49 pm

    I am trying to use your application on an android 2.3.3 and it gives me an error when i try to search for devices “Descovery bluetooth devices : res -1”. Also could you please tell me how i might use hci_read_rssi? i dont understand the parameters it receives.

  • April 10, 2013 at 2:36 pm

    As vrea sa fac o aplicatie de triangulare folosind rssi-ul mai multor telefoane si in sdk nu pot decat cand le caut…asta inseamna o data la 12 secunde si oricum chiar daca pot opri cautarea telefoanele raspund foarte greu…get si dupa 6 secunde si nu e util..
    Si citisem ca libraria de bluez ar fi ascunsa in ndk…am vazut ca tu ai luat de pe google sources fiserele alea. Oricum eu nu am facut in liceu programare iar in facultate am facut 90% din timp java deci c,c++ nu imi sunt foarte cunoscute motiv pentru care nici nu inteleg cum sa chem hci_read_rssi();
    Mentionez ca aplicatia este pentru licenta.
    In legatura cu eroarea de pe telefonul cu 2.3.3 cum as putea sa o rezolv?
    Ms anticipat!

  • April 13, 2013 at 1:59 pm

    Ma poti ajuta si pe mine cu eroarea aia? Si eventual imi poti spune cum sa apelez metoda de rssi?
    Ms frumos!

  • Pingback: eclipse arduino code crashing for bluetooth control - How-To Video

  • May 26, 2013 at 7:51 am

    will this project still work if you used a PIC with UART interface instead of a ATMega?

  • May 26, 2013 at 2:10 pm

    PLZ HELP ;

    i want to do like this program but not using bluetooth but using wifi
    I will discuss the graduation project on 10/06/2013
    plz help

  • October 4, 2013 at 8:36 am

    hello Sir…….if we design the same using Atmega16 then what will be the programe code for Atmega16 mcu??

  • October 4, 2013 at 8:37 am

    @Kumar: The same, but compiled for the mega16.

  • October 8, 2013 at 12:37 pm


    How can to implement this code for control remote access between two android devices. I want to make android to android connection through bluetooth and remote control from one device to another device. Kindly re-engineer your code and post it soon.

  • Pingback: Remote Control Robots Using Android Mobile Devices - How To Tutorials And Resources - Into Robotics

  • October 31, 2013 at 9:29 pm

    Hello Radu,.
    Can u please make a tutorial explaining the concept of UART of ATmega8, I couldn’t find much information about it elsewhere. I want to learn what is UART and how it work with ATMega8 and its coding and all those things that you think a beginner should know.


  • February 23, 2014 at 7:05 pm


    I’m using my bluetooth headset., but here I’ve trouble regarding Rx & Tx pin., in my bluetooth there are six pin SPK+ SPK- B+ B- 5V GND., now how to find that perticular pins..?

  • Pingback: How to Develop Simple Bluetooth Android Application To Control A Robot Remote | Into Robotics

  • July 27, 2015 at 5:59 pm

    How to import the android source code on android studio linux version ?

  • December 25, 2015 at 2:39 pm

    Can u please post the link to the part 2 of this article. The current link keeps redirecting to this same part 1. Thanks in advance!

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